To bring forth, as young; to yean. A lamb just brought forth; a yeanling. The organ of hearing; the external ear.
Parents must be able to easily understand the information it contains. I have heard the following story many times during the past decade: A faculty redesigns its report card, trying to provide more helpful information to students and parents.
While time-consuming to compile, the narrative-based system has a great advantage: It plays down naked scores and crude comparisons of students. The customers parents are always right, regardless of the report writers' intentions; and they typically require more comparative and background information than teachers prefer to provide.
To know how a child is doing, the parents need a context: No matter how detailed, a narrative can never tell us whether language that describes, praises, and criticizes is relative to our expectations for the child, classroom norms, or absolute high standards of achievement.
Adding a single letter grade helps very little: Some schools do give comparative data about individual performance against local norms, and many letter grades implicitly provide such a comparison.
Yet, mere norms mislead: The problem with our report cards is that grades and comments are always encoded and not standard-referenced. Current report cards say too little about the specific tasks the student has actually done or not done, and to what specific and verifiable level of performance.
And they say too little about progress toward exit-level standards. What has the child actually accomplished or not accomplished?
Is the child on course to perform well at the next school and meet district, regional, and national standards?
We need to provide more contextualized, credible, verifiable, and—above all—honest information in report cards.
New Approaches I propose six new approaches: A clear distinction between standard-referenced and norm-referenced achievement in reports.
How is Johnny doing—not just against local norms, but also against credible regional or national standards? A system that sums up the data in two kinds of teacher judgments: A longitudinal reporting system that charts achievement against exit-level standards, so that a 3rd grader knows how he or she is doing against 5th grade and sometimes 12th grade standards, just as we find in performance areas like chess and diving.
The report should identify strengths and weaknesses in the diverse priority areas, topics, skills, and understandings that make up a subject. Accurate distinctions between the quality of students' work and the sophistication or degree of difficulty of their work.
An evaluation of the student's intellectual character—habits of mind and work—based on performance and products. The report highlights teacher judgments about the dispositions that are essential to successful higher-level work and routinely found on college reference forms and personnel records for example, persistence, attention to detail, and open-mindedness.
Such information will make reports more valid, but not necessarily more informative to the parent, who might ask: What does he or she have to do to earn a higher grade? I am not advocating the end of the use of letter grades on report cards. Letter grades per se are not the problem.
Using a single grade with no clear and stable meaning to summarize all aspects of performance is a problem. We need more, not fewer grades; and more different kinds of grades and comments if the parent is to be informed. All the ideas stem from two overarching values: A school's reporting categories and feedback are only as good as the assessment system from which they are drawn, and honesty is the best policy in reporting.
Ease of Translation A report card summarizes student performance. Grades or numbers, like all symbols, are an efficient way to do this. Because the parent cannot be expected to review all the student's work and arrive at all appropriate meanings, the professional's job is to make meaning from the work and present facts, judgments, and prescriptions in a user-friendly form.AUTOBIOGRAPHY.
-- With the Declaration of Independence. January 6, At the age of 77, I begin to make some memoranda and state some recollections of dates & facts concerning myself, for my own more ready reference & for the information of my family.
Science lessons, STEM and FOSS activities, Google Interactive Science Engagement all at the Science School Yard let's make science child's play. The Writing Process. Writing is not merely a finished product; it is a process including prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing.
THE "WANDERING SOUL" TAPE OF VIETNAM. SGM Herbert A. Friedman (Ret.) Note: The book “SOUND TARGETS,” Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, , used portions of this article and quoted the author and Ed Rouse the webmaster.
This article has been translated into French and reprinted with the author’s permission by the Association of Collectors of the American-Vietnamese Conflict. barnweddingvt.com Words Beginning With E / Words Starting with E Words whose second letter is E.
E The fifth letter of the English alphabet.. E E is the third tone of the model diatonic scale.E/ (E flat) is a tone which is intermediate between D and E. Academic Writing is a Waste of Time – Unless You Use Our Help.
Have you ever tried counting how much time writing a single paper takes? Ever added up the time spent on writing essays and other assignments within a term?