References and Further Reading 1. Understanding the Problem of Personal Identity The persistence question, the question of what personal identity over time consists in, is literally a question of life and death: These adventures do not have to be theoretically as fancy as the cases, to be discussed later, of human fission or brain swaps:
Received Jan 16; Accepted Apr 5.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. However, the philosophical discourse addresses very different meanings of the term, which should be distinguished to avoid misunderstandings, but also to sharpen the key meanings of the term in psychological contexts.
These crucial points in the philosophical concepts of identity in the sense of singularity, individuality, or self-sameness may structure the ongoing discussion on identity in psychiatric diagnoses as in DSM-5, Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment, this issue,in psychology, psychoanalysis, but also neuroscience and neurophilosophy Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment, this issue, Method The concept of identity is subjected to a systematic philosophical analysis following some milestones in its history to provide a background for recent discussions on identity in psychiatry and psychology.
Results The article focuses first on the philosophical core distinctions of identity in the different meanings to be addressed, second, briefly on some of the diverse psychological histories of the concept in the second half of the 20th century.
Finally some reflections are presented on borderline personality disorder, considered as a mental disorder with a disturbance or diffusion of identity as core feature, and briefly on a newly developed instrument assessing identity development and identity diffusion in adolescence, the AIDA that is also presented in the special issue of this journal Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment, this issue, Conclusion As a conclusion, different points of view concerning identity are summarized in respect to treatment planning, and different levels of description of identity in phenomenology, philosophy of mind, cognitive science, and social science and personality psychology are outlined.
In the last six decades, since E. We are confronted with questions on identity in a world, where flexibility is seen as a virtue and accelerating change pervades society, in the vocational world, in families, relationships, and in the biographies of individuals.
This provides a basis for a further discussion of the modern psychological and psychopathological concepts of identity and identity diffusion in psychology and psychiatry, particularly in the diagnosis of borderline personality disorders.
Results and discussion Identity in philosophy: Thus, identity in this sense focuses on the uniqueness of the concerned object. The problem of identity became a problem of substance throughout the history of philosophy in the efforts to define the principle of individuation.
Leibniz in his Discourse on Metaphysics Section 9 [ 1 ], p. So, they become replaceable salva veritate truth preserving in any other possible context and under any other conditions. That is where the conviction of an ineffability and unknowability of individuals is rooted herein.
But, as one can see, the individuality of a singular object is not easily even principally not describable in its empirical dimensions. We never would come at the individuality of an individual by its complete description. Individuals primarily are objects, i. Anyhow, Kant wanted to attribute identity to the unity of an object in a fundamental way, i.
In the transcendental ego he laid down such a principle: The Kantian sense of identity is exclusively part of the consciousness of the ego that can be seen as a link to the Anglo-Saxon tradition of empirism in Hobbes, Locke, and Hume.
But, a new problem arises when individuals are identified as singular entities because of their spatio-temporal localization, as it is demanded by empirism: This problem becomes highly virulent when it is about personal individuals.
Locke particularly related the human self to memory and, emphasizing this point, argued that a person can be addressed as the same person if she is able to remember previous states of consciousness: However, numeric identity has to be complemented by substantially meaningful identification, particularly when it is about individual persons [ 6 ].
This is the usual interpretation of identity in social science. Whether or not this qualitative identity is only a matter of looking at the individual from the perspective of social role, is widely discussed: Goffman [ 8 ] for example argues that the identity of the I is only a matter of an internal, reflexive perspective of the subject, the German philosopher E.
Tugendhat [ 6 ] emphasizes that the identification by social roles assumes a commitment by the individual, and depends therefore on an internal view of the individual person from his or her point of view. Finally, it seems to depend on the epistemological interest: Since, this is a question of self-identification: This is probably not a question of identity in the sense of a qualitative identification — and much less one of a numeric one.
But, it focuses on the other aspect of identity of individuals: Identity in this sense aims at competences and capacities of the individual to communicate, to interact, and to integrate and synthesize different emotional states, social roles, values, beliefs, group identifications etc.
Identity in the sense of self-sameness is not a fixed result of a process of development, but a dynamic process of continual integration itself, creating continuity in the persistent self-consciousness over space and time. As the philosopher H. Identity in the sense of sameness or constancy over time can be realized as the effort and performance of creating the unity of an autobiographical self see also [ 13 ]: Moreover, the narrative identity is always articulated through concepts and practices made available by cultural narratives, i.
Therefore, in contrast to a paradigm of cognitive representations the narrative approach entails a shift to a paradigm of social construction, in which the self in its identity, and particularly in its moral development is focused in terms of intersubjectivity:Unlike most editing & proofreading services, we edit for everything: grammar, spelling, punctuation, idea flow, sentence structure, & more.
Get started now! Refers to the global understanding a person has of themselves. Self Identity is composed of relatively permanent self-assessments, such as personality attributes, knowledge of one’s skills and abilities, one’s occupation and hobbies, and awareness of one’s physical attributes.
John Locke speaks of personal identity and survival of consciousness after death. A criterion of personal identity through time is given. Such a criterion specifies, insofar as that is possible, the necessary and sufficient conditions for the survival of persons.
View Help Index. Do I Need Help? of body esteem in forming personal identity. Who Do You Think You Are? of in terms of early development of the self. A new measure of identity shows the. Jul 31, · From a neurocognitive point of view identity is addressed in a rather basic sense by differentiating higher-order cognitive functions such as working memory or executive functions, which finally concern self-representing contents, on the one hand, and self-specificity, i.e.
the acquaintance of a minimal self, which comprehends a sense of. David Hume believed that while people may have notions of some unchanging personal characteristics embedded within themselves, people have actually mistaken their perceptions of themselves as the genuine article.