The Enlightenment was both a movement and a state of mind. The term represents a phase in the intellectual history of Europe, but it also serves to define programs of reform in which influential literati, inspired by a common faith in the possibility… A brief treatment of the Enlightenment follows.
Ayurvedic herbal medicines The Atharvavedaa sacred text of Hinduism dating from the Early Iron Ageis one of the first Indian text dealing with medicine.
The Atharvaveda also contain prescriptions of herbs for various ailments. The use of herbs to treat ailments would later form a large part of Ayurveda. Ayurveda, meaning the "complete knowledge for long life" is another medical system of India.
Its two most famous texts belong to the schools of Charaka and Sushruta. The earliest foundations of Ayurveda were built on a synthesis of traditional herbal practices together with a massive addition of theoretical conceptualizations, new nosologies and new therapies dating from about BCE onwards, and coming out of the communities of thinkers who included the Buddha and others.
Both these ancient compendia include details of the examination, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of numerous ailments. Most remarkable is Sushruta's penchant for scientific classification: His medical treatise consists of chapters, 1, conditions are listed, including injuries and illnesses relating to aging and mental illness.
The Ayurvedic classics mention eight branches of medicine: The teaching of various subjects was done during the instruction of relevant clinical subjects. For example, teaching of anatomy was a part of the teaching of surgery, embryology was a part of training in pediatrics and obstetrics, and the knowledge of physiology and pathology was interwoven in the teaching of all the clinical disciplines.
The normal length of the student's training appears to have been seven years. But the physician was to continue to learn.
It progressed during Indian sultanate and mughal periods. Unani medicine is very close to Ayurveda. Both are based on theory of the presence of the elements in Unani, they are considered to be fire, water, earth and air in the human body.
According to followers of Unani medicine, these elements are present in different fluids and their balance leads to health and their imbalance leads to illness. Muslim rulers built large hospitals in in Hyderabadand in Delhi inand numerous commentaries on ancient texts were written.
Traditional Chinese medicine Assorted dried plant and animal parts used in traditional Chinese medicines, clockwise from top left corner: Much of the philosophy of traditional Chinese medicine derived from empirical observations of disease and illness by Taoist physicians and reflects the classical Chinese belief that individual human experiences express causative principles effective in the environment at all scales.
These causative principles, whether material, essential, or mystical, correlate as the expression of the natural order of the universe. The Jin Dynasty practitioner and advocate of acupuncture and moxibustionHuangfu Mi —also quotes the Yellow Emperor in his Jiayi jing, c.
During the Tang Dynastythe Suwen was expanded and revised, and is now the best extant representation of the foundational roots of traditional Chinese medicine.
Traditional Chinese Medicine that is based on the use of herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage and other forms of therapy has been practiced in China for thousands of years. In the 18th century, during the Qing dynasty, there was a proliferation of popular books as well as more advanced encyclopedias on traditional medicine.
Jesuit missionaries introduced Western science and medicine to the royal court, the Chinese physicians ignored them. Because of the social custom that men and women should not be near to one another, the women of China were reluctant to be treated by male doctors.
The missionaries sent women doctors such as Dr. Mary Hannah Fulton — Because Machaon is wounded and Podaleirius is in combat Eurypylus asks Patroclus to cut out this arrow from my thigh, wash off the blood with warm water and spread soothing ointment on the wound.
View of the Askleipion of Kosthe best preserved instance of an Asklepieion. Temples dedicated to the healer-god Asclepiusknown as Asclepieia Ancient Greek: Some of the surgical cures listed, such as the opening of an abdominal abscess or the removal of traumatic foreign material, are realistic enough to have taken place, but with the patient in a state of enkoimesis induced with the help of soporific substances such as opium.
He argued that channels linked the sensory organs to the brain, and it is possible that he discovered one type of channel, the optic nerves, by dissection. Most famously, the Hippocratics invented the Hippocratic Oath for physicians.
Contemporary physicians swear an oath of office which includes aspects found in early editions of the Hippocratic Oath.
Hippocrates and his followers were first to describe many diseases and medical conditions. Though humorism humoralism as a medical system predates 5th-century Greek medicine, Hippocrates and his students systemetized the thinking that illness can be explained by an imbalance of blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile.
For this reason, clubbed fingers are sometimes referred to as "Hippocratic fingers". Shakespeare famously alludes to this description when writing of Falstaff 's death in Act II, Scene iii. His teachings remain relevant to present-day students of pulmonary medicine and surgery.
Hippocrates was the first documented person to practise cardiothoracic surgeryand his findings are still valid. Some of the techniques and theories developed by Hippocrates are now put into practice by the fields of Environmental and Integrative Medicine.The period was marked by a further decline in the influence of the church, governmental consolidation and greater rights for the common people.
Politically, it was a time of revolutions and turmoil and of the overturning of established traditions. Watch video · Enlightenment thinkers in Britain, in France and throughout Europe questioned traditional authority and embraced the notion that humanity could be improved through rational change.
The Enlightenment produced numerous books, essays, inventions, scientific discoveries, laws, wars and revolutions.
The idea of “artistic freedom” is an outgrowth of the Enlightenment introduction of the concept of the “individual.” The idea of the defiant artist, challenging the establishment and shocking the conservative public is an Enlightenment concept . Introduction to 20th Century Speech Pathology History. Most histories written of speech pathology origins in the US focus on organizational matters. The history of medicine shows how societies have changed in their approach to illness and disease from ancient times to the present. Early medical traditions include those of Babylon, China, Egypt and India. The Indians introduced the concepts of medical diagnosis, prognosis, and advanced medical barnweddingvt.com Hippocratic Oath was written in ancient Greece in the 5th century BCE, and is a direct.
Introduction to 20th Century Speech Pathology History. Most histories written of speech pathology origins in the US focus on organizational matters. "John Arnold builds around a few glittering fragments of the past-- a medieval murderer, a 17th-century pension to an abandoned wife, a speech by a black woman born into slavery-- a whole exhibition about what history is and is not.
Toward the middle of the eighteenth century a shift in thinking occurred. This shift is known as the Enlightenment. You have probably already heard of some important Enlightenment figures, like Rousseau, Diderot and Voltaire. The Age of Enlightenment, an introduction by Dr.
Steven Zucker and Dr. Beth Harris Joseph Wright of Derby, A Philosopher Giving A Lecture at the Orrery, c.
, oil on canvas, x cm (Derby Museum and Art Gallery, Derby, England).