The black stone stele containing the Code of Hammurabi was carved from a single, four-ton slab of diorite, a durable but incredibly difficult stone for carving. At its top is a two-and-a-half-foot relief carving of a standing Hammurabi receiving the law—symbolized by a measuring rod and tape—from the seated Shamash, the Babylonian god of justice.
Historical approaches[ edit ] Although the word "acculturation" was coined by J.
Powell in the earliest record of acculturation can be found in Sumerian inscriptions from B. These inscriptions laid out rules for commerce and interaction with foreigners designed to limit acculturation and protect traditional cultural practices.
Accordingly, he proposed that no one should travel abroad until they are at least 40 years of age, and that travellers should be restricted to the ports of cities to minimize contact with native citizens.
One of the most notable forms of acculturation is imperialismthe most common predecessor of direct cultural change.
Although these cultural changes may seem simple, the combined results are both robust and complex, impacting both groups and individuals from the original culture and the host culture. The first psychological theory of acculturation was proposed in W.
From studying Polish immigrants in Chicago, they illustrated three forms of acculturation corresponding to three personality types: Bohemian adopting the host culture and abandoning their culture of originPhilistine failing to adopt the host culture but preserving their culture of originand creative-type able to adapt to the host culture while preserving their culture of origin.
Those phenomena which result when groups of individuals having different cultures come into continuous first-hand contact, with subsequent changes in the original cultural patterns of either or both groups InMilton Gordon 's book Assimilation in American Life outlined seven stages of the assimilative process, setting the stage for literature on this topic.
Later, Young Yun Kim authored a reiteration of Gordon's work, but argued cross-cultural adaptation as a multi-staged process.
Kim's theory focused on the unitary nature of psychological and social processes and the reciprocal functional personal environment interdependence. In Kim's approach, assimilation is unilinear and the sojourner must conform to the majority group culture in order to be "communicatively competent.
Thus, the term adaptation is used by Gudykunst and Kim to mean conformity to the coercive power pp. According to this definition, any attempt to maintain one's original values, beliefs, ways of thinking, feelings, or behaviors constitutes mental illness or "maladaptation" p.
This is further emphasized by Gudykunst and Kimstating that the way of "upward-forward" evolution toward functional fitness and psychological health is for the newcomer to willfully "unlearn" and "deculturize" themselves p.
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Gudykunst and Kim proposed both psychotherapy and abandonment of all ethnic relations and associations with ethnic ties to help immigrants achieve "integrative" conformity Again, this is not integration but rather dissolution of the newcomer's original identity. According to Gudykunst and Kimincreased disintegration is preferred, even if it leads to extreme distress for the immigrant.
Ironically, Gudykunst and Kim seemed to identify the concept of acculturative stress stating "even extreme mental illness [caused by "conformity pressure" p.
No matter how unjust or cruel, Gudykunst and Kim argue that the host's way of thinking, feeling, and behaving constitutes the "higher level" of psychic evolution and any resistance to conform indicates that the immigrant is communicatively incompetent, immature, mentally ill pp.
Evolutionary progress for the individual requires the individual to "abandon identification with the cultural patterns that have constituted who one is and what one is" p.
In contradistinction from Gudykunst and Kim's version of adaptive evolution, Eric M.
Kramer developed his theory of Cultural Fusion a,  a,   a,    maintaining clear, conceptual distinctions between assimilation, adaptation, and integration. According to Kramer, assimilation involves conformity to a pre-existing form.
Kramer's a, b, c, theory of Cultural Fusion, which is based on systems theory and hermeneuticsargues that it is impossible for a person to unlearn themselves and that by definition, "growth" is not a zero sum process that requires the disillusion of one form for another to come into being but rather a process of learning new languages and cultural repertoires ways of thinking, cooking, playing, working worshiping, and so forth.
In other words, Kramer argues that one need not unlearn a language in order to learn a new one, nor does one have to unlearn who one is in order to learn new ways of dancing, cooking, talking and so forth. Unlike Gudykunst and KimKramer argues that this blending of language and culture results in cognitive complexity, or the ability to switch between cultural repertoires.
To put Kramer's ideas simply, learning is growth rather than unlearning. Kramer[ edit ] Although numerous models of acculturation exist, the most complete models take into consideration the changes occurring at the group and individual levels of both interacting groups.13 A major contribution of the Golden Age of Islam was the (1) development of mercantilism (2) creation of the first polytheistic religion (3) spread of democratic ideals.
It is the goal of the White Plains School District that the information on its Website be accessible to all individuals, including those with visual, hearing, or cognitive disabilities. The publisher of the Journal on European History of Law is the STS Science Centre Ltd.
seated in London. The European Society for History of Law closely cooperates with the STS Science Centre Ltd. and helps with editing the journal. Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.
It has been defined both as "the Science of Justice" and "the Art of Justice". Law is a system that regulates and ensures that individuals or a community adhere to the will of the state. Essay about Law Code of Hammurabi. Law Code of Hammurabi Formerly a region of much conflict, the Babylonian Kingdom unified Sumerian and Akkadian city-states under King Hammurabi.
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