Please select an appropriate academic level that corresponds to your level of writing. Type of Paper Please select the most appropriate type of paper needed.
It has long been hypothesized that such changes in the brain caused by childhood lead exposure may be behind a higher incidence of poor cognitive performance and criminal behavior. And although it is difficult to disentangle the confounding effects of race, class and economics, a recent study by Kim Dietrich, a professor of environmental health at the University of Cincinnati, found that individuals who suffered from the highest lead exposure as children had the smallest brain sizes—as well as the most arrests.
Rather, scientists now argue, it is a brain's underlying organization and molecular activity at its synapses the communication junctions between neurons through which nerve impulses pass that dictate intelligence.
Two years ago, Paul Manger, a professor of health sciences at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa, caused quite a stir when he referred to the beloved bottlenose dolphinowner of a large, nearly human-size brain, as "dumber than a goldfish.
And brain size only matters if the rest of the brain is organized properly to facilitate information processing. Manger speculates that cetacean brains are large not because of intelligence but instead due to an abundance of fatty glial cells non-nerve cells serving as a supporting tissuewhich may be present to provide warmth in cold waters for the information-processing neurons in the brain's interior.
Marino says that Manger's theories discount years of behavioral evidence that show dolphins to be complex thinkers.
What's more, she says, the mammals have an unusual brain structure with a different functional map and therefore cannot be compared with other species.
Marino believes that the dolphin's unique brain organization may represent an alternate evolutionary route to complex intelligence—and that molecules released in synapses may provide that alternative path. A study recently published in Nature Neuroscience by Seth Grant, a neuroscientist at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute in Cambridge, along with Richard Emes, a professor in Bioinformatics at Keele University School of Medicine in North Staffordshire, both in England, suggests that all species have the same basic proteins that act in the synapses.
It is the number of interactions and gene duplications of these proteins that provide the brain building blocks for higher level cognitive function. They found that a variation in production and distribution patterns was linked to higher-level brain organization.
He goes on to say that the different interactions, duplications or deletions of these proteins resulted over time in the evolutionary development of regions like the prefrontal cortex in humans which is involved in higher executive function like planning and goal-directed behavior Grant says that this finding offers scientists a new way to approach the study of brain evolution and intelligence and, perhaps more importantly, suggests that looking at sheer brain size has very little to offer in understanding cognitive abilities.
But they have complex molecular synapses," says Grant. Though Manger discounts the role of glial cells in intelligence, a posthumous anatomical study of Albert Einstein's brain showed that the scientific genius's brain differed from the brains of other dead scientists only with its greater ratio of glial cells to neurons.
But a study of Einstein's brain organization and synaptic molecule configuration still remains to be completed.Grades matter if you need them to matter, but that isn’t to say that you can’t achieve greatness if you’re not pulling a Jobs, Branson and countless others are testaments to that truth.
Does Homework Improve Learning? Chapter 2 of THE HOMEWORK MYTH (Da Capo Press, ) Do we really know how much homework kids do? All of the cautions, qualifications, and criticisms in this chapter, for that matter, are relevant to students of all ages.
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How about the type of macaroni and cheese you reach for? agent DOSAGE: 1mg, 2mg, 3mg, 5mg, and 10mg oral initially 10mg orally daily for days then maintenance. Nov 25, · When I say "Black lives matter," it is because this nation has a tendency to say otherwise.
Racial discrimination does affect all minorities but . Why Life Does Not Really Exist. I have been fascinated with living things since childhood.
Growing up in northern California, I spent a lot of time playing outdoors among plants and animals. Does It Really Matter? The topic for this essay was chosen because it is similar to a reading that is called Why Tough Teachers Get Good Results.
That reading includes the effects of strict parents on children so the choice was made to research the effects of gay parents on children.