Its general purpose is to aid, stimulate, and facilitate a two-way flow of information and understanding between the peoples of North, South, and Central America in an era of economic and environmental interdependence. The specific purpose is to provide a representative selection from the huge vocabulary of plant biology for those who work in the field or in laboratories, including botanical researchers, students, agriculturists, conservationists, communicators, translators, educators, and interpreters. The extensive range of the subject has meant that the authors could not aim at completeness, nevertheless, care was taken to obtain a proportionate selection of terms from all areas of plant biology. Included are plant-related terms from the fields of botany, ecology, genetics, taxonomy, oceanology, microbiology, physiology, cytology, marine biology, forestry, silviculture, horticulture, anatomy, organology, phytopathology, agriculture, biochemistry, paleobotany, phenology, photobotany, phycology, systematics phytology, phytogeography, phytochemistry, phytosociology, morphology, pomology, and ethnobotany.
Nomenclature[ edit ] Before the 20th century, the term philologyfirst attested in was commonly used to refer to the study of language, which was then predominantly historical in focus. Linguistics is a multi-disciplinary field of research that combines tools from natural sciences, social sciences, and the humanities.
The theory of variation therefore would elaborate on the different usages of popular languages like French and English across the globe, as well as its Science terms in spanish dialects and regional permutations within their national boundaries.
The theory of variation looks at the cultural stages that a particular language undergoes, and these include the following. Pidgin[ edit ] The pidgin stage in a language is a stage when communication occurs through a grammatically simplified means, developing between two or more groups that do not have a language in common.
Typically, it is a mixture of languages at the stage when there occurs a mixing between a primary language with other language elements. Creole[ edit ] A creole stage in language occurs when there is a stable natural language developed from a mixture of different languages.
It is a stage that occurs after a language undergoes its pidgin stage. At the creole stage, a language is a complete language, used in a community and acquired by children as their native language. Dialect[ edit ] A dialect is a variety of language that is characteristic of a particular group among the language speakers.
This is what differentiates a dialect from a register or a discoursewhere in the latter case, cultural identity does not always play a role. Dialects are speech varieties that have their own grammatical and phonological rules, linguistic features, and stylistic aspects, but have not been given an official status as a language.
Dialects often move on to gain the status of a language due to political and social reasons. Differentiation amongst dialects and subsequently, languages too is based upon the use of grammatical rules, syntactic rules, and stylistic features, though not always on lexical use or vocabulary.
The popular saying that " a language is a dialect with an army and navy " is attributed as a definition formulated by Max Weinreich. Universal grammar takes into account general formal structures and features that are common to all dialects and languages, and the template of which pre-exists in the mind of an infant child.
This idea is based on the theory of generative grammar and the formal school of linguistics, whose proponents include Noam Chomsky and those who follow his theory and work. This should not make us think, though, that it is actually any better than any other dialect.
As a social practice, discourse embodies different ideologies through written and spoken texts. Discourse analysis can examine or expose these ideologies.
Discourse influences genre, which is chosen in response to different situations and finally, at micro level, discourse influences language as text spoken or written at the phonological or lexico-grammatical level.
Grammar and discourse are linked as parts of a system.
Registers and discourses therefore differentiate themselves through the use of vocabularyand at times through the use of style too. People in the medical fraternity, for example, may use some medical terminology in their communication that is specialized to the field of medicine.
This is often referred to as being part of the "medical discourse", and so on. Standard language[ edit ] When a dialect is documented sufficiently through the linguistic description of its grammar, which has emerged through the consensual laws from within its community, it gains political and national recognition through a country or region's policies.
That is the stage when a language is considered a standard variety, one whose grammatical laws have now stabilised from within the consent of speech community participants, after sufficient evolution, improvisation, correction, and growth.
The English language, besides perhaps the French language, may be examples of languages that have arrived at a stage where they are said to have become standard varieties.
The study of a language's universal properties, on the other hand, include some of the following concepts. Lexicon[ edit ] The lexicon is a catalogue of words and terms that are stored in a speaker's mind.
The lexicon consists of words and bound morphemeswhich are parts of words that can't stand alone, like affixes. In some analyses, compound words and certain classes of idiomatic expressions and other collocations are also considered to be part of the lexicon.
Dictionaries represent attempts at listing, in alphabetical order, the lexicon of a given language; usually, however, bound morphemes are not included. Lexicographyclosely linked with the domain of semantics, is the science of mapping the words into an encyclopedia or a dictionary.
The creation and addition of new words into the lexicon is called coining or neologization,  and the new words are called neologisms. It is often believed that a speaker's capacity for language lies in the quantity of words stored in the lexicon.
However, this is often considered a myth by linguists. The capacity for the use of language is considered by many linguists to lie primarily in the domain of grammar, and to be linked with competencerather than with the growth of vocabulary.
Even a very small lexicon is theoretically capable of producing an infinite number of sentences.
Relativity[ edit ] As constructed popularly through the Sapir—Whorf hypothesisrelativists believe that the structure of a particular language is capable of influencing the cognitive patterns through which a person shapes his or her world view.
Universalists believe that there are commonalities between human perception as there is in the human capacity for language, while relativists believe that this varies from language to language and person to person. While the Sapir—Whorf hypothesis is an elaboration of this idea expressed through the writings of American linguists Edward Sapir and Benjamin Lee Whorfit was Sapir's student Harry Hoijer who termed it thus.We've combined the most accurate English to Spanish translations, dictionary, verb conjugations, and Spanish to English translators into one very powerful search box.
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Yeah I am going to have to say you are right to a point. “Rico” means rich for sure. However, I think the connotation for daddy is a little different in English than in Spanish. Spanish vocabulary words and terms to know for buying food, cooking and eating out.
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